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ALEXANDRIA, La buy kamagra online. (KALB) - Treating buy kamagra online patients experiencing mental health issues is challenging for healthcare providers. In fact, the difficulty increases for those servicing individuals in rural areas.“It’s been studied that rural residents don’t receive their primary care and preventive screenings as much as they should,” Katie Corkern, the Executive Director of Louisiana Rural Mental Health Alliance, said.

€œThat makes it even more likely that they won’t receive their mental health care.”Corken submitted data showing one in 25 people in Louisiana experience serious mental buy kamagra online illness. She said a major hurdle and disparities for those in rural communities is access to mental services.“For every 340 citizens, there’s only one licensed mental health professional. That number grows larger in Central Louisiana,” she said.Louisiana needs more than 200 mental health workers to meet the buy kamagra online current professional worker shortage.(Source.

HRSA)The Health Resources and Services Administration published information in July 2021, demonstrating the great need for mental health professionals. For example, Rapides Parish is included in the dark blue category, indicating a major shortage in the buy kamagra online area.“It’s definitely hard to get access to care. It’s truly a crisis.”The effects of the mental health professional shortages also buy kamagra online influence hiring decisions for local mental health organizations.

Michael Moto, CEO and owner of Healing Hands and Hearts Behavioral Health Center, said it is challenging getting trained people into the field. He also buy kamagra online said male mental health professionals are in dire need. His center currently employs one male case manager.“Most of the issues we see are children without the parent in the home, particularly the father,” Moto said.He said the shortage puts a strain on mental health organizations.

He also believes male mental health buy kamagra online workers play a vital role in community health.“By not having male case managers, we’re not able to help those clients that need male role models and guidance in their lives,” he said.Those role models at an early age can improve health and overall life outcomes because many in the state’s juvenile justice system experience mental illness.“Students drop out of school because they’re getting in trouble because their mental needs and mental health needs aren’t being met,” Corken said. €œThere’s drug addiction, incarceration, violence, job stability and, sadly, suicide. The rate is every 12 hours, one person in Louisiana dies by suicide.”Corken said the most important thing is breaking down stigmas buy kamagra online and barriers like transportation and bringing services to patients.“It’s so difficult in a rural area because sometimes the closest practitioner can be easily over an hour from someone’s house, so that makes it incredibly difficult to receive continuing treatment, let alone just one treatment,” she said.She also claims the expansion of telehealth services leaves many rural families without healthcare because of the state’s broadband infrastructure.

A coalition of non-profits and other groups identified 17 parishes in Louisiana as broadband buy kamagra online deserts—a parish with 50% or less broadband coverage.“That’s definitely just another barrier,” she said. €œIf you can’t receive these specialized behavioral health services inpatient, reach out to us. We will try and connect you with a provider that’s in your area, goes into homes and treats kids and families so that they buy kamagra online can lead productive lives.”RESOURCES:National Suicide Hotline.

1-800-273-8255Healing Hands and Hearts Behavioral Center. 1-318-625-7050Click here to contact the Rural Mental buy kamagra online Health Alliance Click here to report a typo.Copyright 2021 KALB. All rights reserved..

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Find this kamagra jelly uk particular information collection by selecting “Currently under 30-day Review—Open for Public Comments” or by using the search function. To obtain copies of a supporting statement and any related forms for the proposed collection(s) summarized in this notice, you may make your request using one of following. 1.

Access CMS' kamagra jelly uk website address at. Https://www.cms.gov/​Regulations-and-Guidance/​Legislation/​PaperworkReductionActof1995/​PRA-Listing.html Start Further Info William Parham at (410) 786-4669. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA) (44 U.S.C.

3501-3520), federal agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of kamagra jelly uk information they conduct or sponsor. The term “collection of information” is defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502(3) and 5 CFR 1320.3(c) and includes agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records, or provide information to a third party.

Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the kamagra jelly uk PRA (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)) requires federal agencies to publish a 30-day notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension or reinstatement of an existing collection of information, before submitting the collection to OMB for approval. To comply with this requirement, CMS is publishing this notice that summarizes the following proposed collection(s) of information for public comment.

1. Type of Information Collection Request. Revision of a currently approved collection.

Title of Information Collection. Medicare Advantage Chronic Care Improvement Program (CCIP) Attestations. Use.

Section 1852(e) of the Social Security Act (the Act) requires that Medicare Advantage (MA) organizations (MAOs) have an ongoing Quality Improvement (QI) Program. CMS regulations at 42 CFR 422.152(a) outline the QI Program requirements for MAOs, which include the development and implementation of a Chronic Care Improvement Program (CCIP) that meets the requirements of 422.152(c) for each contract. MAOs must use the Health Plan Management System (HPMS) to report the status of their CCIP to CMS by December 31 annually.

Submissions include an attestation by the MAO regarding its compliance with the ongoing CCIP requirement (42 CFR 422.152(c)(2)). MAOs are only required to attest electronically that they are complying with the ongoing CCIP requirement. In addition, MAOs should assess and internally document activities related to the CCIP on an ongoing basis, as well as modify interventions and/or processes as necessary.

A less frequent collection would not allow CMS to ensure that annual requirements are being met. This collection allows CMS to ensure that annual requirements are still being met, while also reducing plan burden. Form Number.

CMS-10209 (OMB Control number. 0938-1023). Frequency.

Annually. Affected Public. Private Sector—Business or other for-profits.

Number of Respondents. 645. Total Annual Responses.

(For policy questions regarding this collection contact Lynn Pereira at 410-786-2274) 2. Type of Information Collection Request. Extension of a currently approved collection.

Title of Information Collection. National Implementation of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). Use.

The HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) Survey is the first national, standardized, publicly reported survey of patients' perspectives of their hospital care. HCAHPS is a 29-item survey instrument and data collection Start Printed Page 32269methodology for measuring patients' perceptions of their hospital experience. Since 2008, HCAHPS has allowed valid comparisons to be made across hospitals locally, regionally and nationally.

The national implementation of HCAHPS is designed to allow third-party CMS-approved survey vendors to administer HCAHPS using mail-only, telephone-only, mixed-mode (mail with telephone follow-up), or active IVR (interactive voice response). With respect to a telephone-only or mixed-mode survey, the CMS-approved survey vendors use electronic data collection or CATI systems. CATI is also used for telephone follow-up with mail survey non-respondents.

With respect to IVR survey administration, the IVR technology gathers information from respondents by prompting respondents to answer questions by pushing the numbers on a touch-tone telephone. Patients selected for IVR mode are able to opt out of the interactive voice response system and return to a “live” interviewer if they wish to do so. Form Number.

CMS-10102 (OMB control number. 0938-0981). Frequency.

Occasionally. Affected Public. Individuals and Households.

Number of Respondents. 2,843,617. Total Annual Responses.

(For policy questions regarding this collection contact William Lehrman at 410-786-1037.) Start Signature Dated. June 14, 2021. William N.

Parham, III, Director, Paperwork Reduction Staff, Office of Strategic Operations and Regulatory Affairs. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2021-12828 Filed 6-16-21.

8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4120-01-PStart Preamble Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services, Health and Human Services (HHS). Notice.

The Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services (CMS) is announcing an opportunity for the public to comment on CMS' intention to collect information from the public. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), federal agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension or reinstatement of an existing collection of information, and to allow a second opportunity for public comment on the notice.

Interested persons are invited to send comments regarding the burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including the necessity and utility of the proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions, the accuracy of the estimated burden, ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected, and the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the information collection burden. Comments on the collection(s) of information must be received by the OMB desk officer by July 9, 2021. Written comments and recommendations for the proposed information collection should be sent within 30 days of publication of this notice to www.reginfo.gov/​public/​do/​PRAMain.

Find this particular information collection by selecting “Currently under 30-day Review—Open for Public Comments” or by using the search function. To obtain copies of a supporting statement and any related forms for the proposed collection(s) summarized in this notice, you may make your request using one of following. 1.

Access CMS' website address at website address at. Https://www.cms.gov/​Regulations-and-Guidance/​Legislation/​PaperworkReductionActof1995/​PRA-Listing.html. Start Further Info William Parham at (410) 786-4669.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), federal agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor. The term “collection of information” is defined in 44 U.S.C.

3502(3) and 5 CFR 1320.3(c) and includes agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records, or provide information to a third party. Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the PRA (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)) requires federal agencies to publish a 30-day notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension or reinstatement of an existing collection of information, before submitting the collection to OMB for approval.

To comply with this requirement, CMS is publishing this notice that summarizes the following proposed collection(s) of information for public comment. 1. Type of Information Collection Request.

Reinstatement without of change of a previously approved collection. Title of Information Collection. Hospice Facility Cost Report Form.

Use. Under the authority of §§ 1815(a) and 1833(e) of the Social Security Act (the Act), CMS requires that providers of services participating in the Medicare program submit information to determine costs for health care services rendered to Medicare beneficiaries. CMS requires that providers follow reasonable cost principles under 1861(v)(1)(A) of the Act when completing the Medicare cost report (MCR).

The regulations at 42 CFR 413.20 and 413.24 require that providers submit acceptable cost reports on an annual basis and maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data, capable of verification by qualified auditors. In addition, regulations require that providers furnish such Information to the contractor as may be necessary to assure proper payment by the program, receive program payments, and satisfy program overpayment determinations. CMS regulations at 42 CFR 413.24(f)(4) require that each hospice submit an annual cost report to their contractor in a standard American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) electronic cost report (ECR) format.

A hospice submits the ECR file to contractors using a compact disk (CD), flash drive, or the CMS approved Medicare Cost Report E-filing (MCREF) portal, [URL. Https://mcref.cms.gov]. The instructions for Start Printed Page 30608submission are included in the hospice cost report instructions on page 43-3.

Revision of buy kamagra online a currently approved collection. Title of Information Collection. Medicare Advantage Chronic Care Improvement Program (CCIP) Attestations.

Use. Section 1852(e) of the Social Security Act (the Act) requires that Medicare Advantage (MA) organizations (MAOs) have an ongoing Quality Improvement (QI) Program. CMS regulations at 42 CFR 422.152(a) outline the QI Program requirements for MAOs, which include the development and implementation of a Chronic Care Improvement Program (CCIP) that meets the requirements of 422.152(c) for each contract.

MAOs must use the Health Plan Management System (HPMS) to report the status of their CCIP to CMS by December 31 annually. Submissions include an attestation by the MAO regarding its compliance with the ongoing CCIP requirement (42 CFR 422.152(c)(2)). MAOs are only required to attest electronically that they are complying with the ongoing CCIP requirement.

In addition, MAOs should assess and internally document activities related to the CCIP on an ongoing basis, as well as modify interventions and/or processes as necessary. A less frequent collection would not allow CMS to ensure that annual requirements are being met. This collection allows CMS to ensure that annual requirements are still being met, while also reducing plan burden.

Form Number. CMS-10209 (OMB Control number. 0938-1023).

Private Sector—Business or other for-profits. Number of Respondents. 645.

Total Annual Responses. 645. Total Annual Hours.

161. (For policy questions regarding this collection contact Lynn Pereira at 410-786-2274) 2. Type of Information Collection Request.

Extension of a currently approved collection. Title of Information Collection. National Implementation of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS).

Use. The HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) Survey is the first national, standardized, publicly reported survey of patients' perspectives of their hospital care. HCAHPS is a 29-item survey instrument and data collection Start Printed Page 32269methodology for measuring patients' perceptions of their hospital experience.

Since 2008, HCAHPS has allowed valid comparisons to be made across hospitals locally, regionally and nationally. The national implementation of HCAHPS is designed to allow third-party CMS-approved survey vendors to administer HCAHPS using mail-only, telephone-only, mixed-mode (mail with telephone follow-up), or active IVR (interactive voice response). With respect to a telephone-only or mixed-mode survey, the CMS-approved survey vendors use electronic data collection or CATI systems.

CATI is also used for telephone follow-up with mail survey non-respondents. With respect to IVR survey administration, the IVR technology gathers information from respondents by prompting respondents to answer questions by pushing the numbers on a touch-tone telephone. Patients selected for IVR mode are able to opt out of the interactive voice response system and return to a “live” interviewer if they wish to do so.

Form Number. CMS-10102 (OMB control number. 0938-0981).

Individuals and Households. Number of Respondents. 2,843,617.

Total Annual Responses. 2,843,617. Total Annual Hours.

347,648. (For policy questions regarding this collection contact William Lehrman at 410-786-1037.) Start Signature Dated. June 14, 2021.

William N. Parham, III, Director, Paperwork Reduction Staff, Office of Strategic Operations and Regulatory Affairs. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc.

2021-12828 Filed 6-16-21. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4120-01-PStart Preamble Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services, Health and Human Services (HHS).

Notice. The Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services (CMS) is announcing an opportunity for the public to comment on CMS' intention to collect information from the public.

Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), federal agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension or reinstatement of an existing collection of information, and to allow a second opportunity for public comment on the notice. Interested persons are invited to send comments regarding the burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including the necessity and utility of the proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions, the accuracy of the estimated burden, ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected, and the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the information collection burden. Comments on the collection(s) of information must be received by the OMB desk officer by July 9, 2021.

Written comments and recommendations for the proposed information collection should be sent within 30 days of publication of this notice to www.reginfo.gov/​public/​do/​PRAMain. Find this particular information collection by selecting “Currently under 30-day Review—Open for Public Comments” or by using the search function. To obtain copies of a supporting statement and any related forms for the proposed collection(s) summarized in this notice, you may make your request using one of following.

1. Access CMS' website address at website address at. Https://www.cms.gov/​Regulations-and-Guidance/​Legislation/​PaperworkReductionActof1995/​PRA-Listing.html.

Start Further Info William Parham at (410) 786-4669. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), federal agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor.

The term “collection of information” is defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502(3) and 5 CFR 1320.3(c) and includes agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records, or provide information to a third party. Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the PRA (44 U.S.C.

3506(c)(2)(A)) requires federal agencies to publish a 30-day notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension or reinstatement of an existing collection of information, before submitting the collection to OMB for approval. To comply with this requirement, CMS is publishing this notice that summarizes the following proposed collection(s) of information for public comment. 1.

Type of Information Collection Request. Reinstatement without of change of a previously approved collection. Title of Information Collection.

Hospice Facility Cost Report Form. Use. Under the authority of §§ 1815(a) and 1833(e) of the Social Security Act (the Act), CMS requires that providers of services participating in the Medicare program submit information to determine costs for health care services rendered to Medicare beneficiaries.

CMS requires that providers follow reasonable cost principles under 1861(v)(1)(A) of the Act when completing the Medicare cost report (MCR). The regulations at 42 CFR 413.20 and 413.24 require that providers submit acceptable cost reports on an annual basis and maintain sufficient financial records and statistical data, capable of verification by qualified auditors. In addition, regulations require that providers furnish such Information to the contractor as may be necessary to assure proper payment by the program, receive program payments, and satisfy program overpayment determinations.

CMS regulations at 42 CFR 413.24(f)(4) require that each hospice submit an annual cost report to their contractor in a standard American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) electronic cost report (ECR) format. A hospice submits the ECR file to contractors using a compact disk (CD), flash drive, or the CMS approved Medicare Cost Report E-filing (MCREF) portal, [URL. Https://mcref.cms.gov].

The instructions for Start Printed Page 30608submission are included in the hospice cost report instructions on page 43-3. CMS requires the Form CMS-1984-14 to determine a hospice's reasonable costs incurred in furnishing medical services to Medicare beneficiaries. CMS uses the Form CMS-1984-14 for rate setting.

Payment refinement activities, including developing a market basket. Medicare Trust Fund projections. And program operations support.

Additionally, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) uses the hospice cost report data to calculate Medicare margins (a measure of the relationship between Medicare's payments and providers' Medicare costs) and analyze data to formulate Medicare Program recommendations to Congress. Form Number. CMS-1984-14 (OMB control number.

Affected Public. Private Sector, Business or other for-profits, Not for profits institutions. Number of Respondents.

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We are buy kamagra pill social epidemiologists and community advocates kamagra viagra gel sachets focused on addressing social determinants of health inequities. While we appreciate O’Neill et al’s effort to link multiple provincial-level administrative data sets to examine homicide victimisation by immigration status in Ontario, Canada, we have concerns about the framing and interpretation of findings and their potential impact on immigrants and refugees.1FRAMING AND APPROACHWhile O’Neill et al’s data and sample size are strengths, the attention to the context of being an immigrant to Canada, theoretical framework and motivation for examining immigrants in relation to homicide victimisation are not fully developed. O’Neill et al do kamagra viagra gel sachets not acknowledge having done any community engagement which is critical and ethical2 given the long history of exclusion, exploitation, racism and discrimination, and the current global climate of increasing criminalisation of migrants.

Meaningful community engagement offers important context. Helps shape the kamagra viagra gel sachets research purpose, questions, approach, interpretation and recommendations. And can reduce the potential for harm.Though criminalisation of migration under security pretexts is an infringement of international law,3 and contradicts evidence that immigration is related to a reduction in crime,4 many high-income countries, including Canada, are framing harmful immigration policy (eg, restricting entry, detaining immigrants) as an urgent need to protect against threats of safety and security,4 5 disproportionately targeting racialised and Muslim immigrants and refugees.

Within this policy context, along with political rhetoric to generate support for it, hate crimes are at record highs in Canada, with approximately 85% of these crimes motivated by racism and ethnic or religious discrimination.6Not only does this paper fail to kamagra viagra gel sachets consider this context, the statements that immigrant communities are ‘predisposed to violence’ without evidence to support this claim. The conflation of perpetrating and dying by homicide, by alternating between the use of ‘homicide’ and ‘homicide victimisation’. And the suggestion that ‘cultural views kamagra viagra gel sachets on gender’ increase risk of violence and homicide victimisation against immigrant women, are particularly harmful.RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONThe authors’ emphasis on the increased risk of homicide victimisation of female and male refugees compared to long-term residents is misleading given that these results are not statistically significant.

The authors argue that the findings are important regardless of significance, because of large effect sizes. But for many researchers, effect sizes of 1.31 and 1.23, respectively, would be considered small to medium and would lead to a much more cautious interpretation.The authors’ interpretation that non-refugee immigrants have a lower risk of homicide victimisation because Canada’s immigration policies select for highly educated and healthy immigrants reflects problems with the theory informing this kamagra viagra gel sachets research, since homicide victimisation is not within the control of an individual. Social epidemiology was founded on the need to theorise political, economic and cultural context over and above individual characteristics.7 A concerning omission is that there is no mention of the potential for hate crimes6 to be at least partially responsible for homicide victimisation among refugees and immigrants.

Additionally, in the text, it is left unclear how a refugee’s kamagra viagra gel sachets history of ‘violence, trauma and torture’ and ‘depression and psychosocial illness’ are linked to homicide victimisation. Such unsupported statements omit essential consideration that Canadian neighbourhoods are heterogeneous combinations of refugees, non-refugees and long-term residents and that violence occurs within a social context which includes racism, xenophobia and Islamophobia.8With the study’s low counts of homicide victimisations among refugees (31 among females and 89 among males over 20 years), 90% of all homicide victimisations in the same time period occurring among long-term residents (table 1 of paper), and no clear data pointing to specific factors to intervene upon, we argue that this potential in excess homicide victimisation does not warrant targeted homicide prevention strategies, as the authors suggest. Broader prevention strategies targeting the entire population (eg, a national ban on handguns and assault weapons,9 10 implementing Canada’s Anti-Racism Strategy8) may be more beneficial in reducing homicide victimisation.POTENTIAL IMPACTWe are concerned that the paper’s framing, approach and interpretation could negatively impact immigrant and refugee communities targeted by significant racism, anti-immigrant sentiment and Islamophobia at policy, practice, community and individual levels.6 11 kamagra viagra gel sachets Community engagement from the start, and comprehensive multi-level, multistage social determinants of immigrant health framework,11 could have prevented misinterpretations of the findings and this potential for harm.

It could have also shifted the approach from a deficit- to an asset-based one that recognises the leadership and impacts of women who founded groups such as Mothers for Peace12 and Mending a Crack in the Sky.13 These groups combat the stigmatisation of mothers and families that have lost children to violence. Support mothers and families experiencing ongoing trauma due kamagra viagra gel sachets to violence. And advocate for policy and programme change to reduce poverty, violence and homicide for all people in Canada, a more inclusive public health approach.We thank Wanigaratne and Mawani et al for taking the time to write this Commentary,1 which we have read with great interest.

We agree that the framing and interpretation of findings about immigrant and refugee kamagra viagra gel sachets communities is of great importance and appreciate the opportunity to provide clarification. We would first like to acknowledge the valuable expertise of the authors as well as their strong relationships and vital advocacy work within communities.The primary aim of our study was to provide descriptive epidemiology of homicide in Ontario.2 Very few population-level descriptive studies have been published characterising homicides, particularly regarding trends in homicide victimisation between and across population subgroups. Our study team includes epidemiologists, professional and academics who work at the intersection of public health and violence, experience with implementing violence prevention programmes in marginalised populations around the world and expertise in working with large linked health administrative data.The linked health and administrative databases we used help fill the data gap with respect to understanding the victims of violence, including but not limited to refugee status.3 This aim is consistent with other descriptive database studies published about health and health system outcomes among immigrant and refugee populations in Ontario.4–11 The motivation for this study was to provide descriptive data that can be used by communities and researchers to better understand the distribution of health outcomes kamagra viagra gel sachets across populations.

Our study found differences in risk of homicide across several social and economic indicators, including lower socioeconomic ….

We are social more epidemiologists and community advocates focused on addressing social determinants of health inequities buy kamagra online. While we appreciate O’Neill et al’s effort to link multiple provincial-level administrative data sets to examine homicide victimisation by immigration status in Ontario, Canada, we have concerns about the framing and interpretation of findings and their potential impact on immigrants and refugees.1FRAMING AND APPROACHWhile O’Neill et al’s data and sample size are strengths, the attention to the context of being an immigrant to Canada, theoretical framework and motivation for examining immigrants in relation to homicide victimisation are not fully developed. O’Neill et al do not acknowledge having done any community buy kamagra online engagement which is critical and ethical2 given the long history of exclusion, exploitation, racism and discrimination, and the current global climate of increasing criminalisation of migrants. Meaningful community engagement offers important context.

Helps shape the research purpose, questions, approach, interpretation and buy kamagra online recommendations. And can reduce the potential for harm.Though criminalisation of migration under security pretexts is an infringement of international law,3 and contradicts evidence that immigration is related to a reduction in crime,4 many high-income countries, including Canada, are framing harmful immigration policy (eg, restricting entry, detaining immigrants) as an urgent need to protect against threats of safety and security,4 5 disproportionately targeting racialised and Muslim immigrants and refugees. Within this policy context, along buy kamagra online with political rhetoric to generate support for it, hate crimes are at record highs in Canada, with approximately 85% of these crimes motivated by racism and ethnic or religious discrimination.6Not only does this paper fail to consider this context, the statements that immigrant communities are ‘predisposed to violence’ without evidence to support this claim. The conflation of perpetrating and dying by homicide, by alternating between the use of ‘homicide’ and ‘homicide victimisation’.

And the suggestion that ‘cultural views on gender’ increase risk of violence and homicide victimisation against immigrant women, are particularly harmful.RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONThe authors’ emphasis on the increased risk of homicide victimisation buy kamagra online of female and male refugees compared to long-term residents is misleading given that these results are not statistically significant. The authors argue that the findings are important regardless of significance, because of large effect sizes. But for many researchers, effect sizes of 1.31 and 1.23, respectively, would buy kamagra online be considered small to medium and would lead to a much more cautious interpretation.The authors’ interpretation that non-refugee immigrants have a lower risk of homicide victimisation because Canada’s immigration policies select for highly educated and healthy immigrants reflects problems with the theory informing this research, since homicide victimisation is not within the control of an individual. Social epidemiology was founded on the need to theorise political, economic and cultural context over and above individual characteristics.7 A concerning omission is that there is no mention of the potential for hate crimes6 to be at least partially responsible for homicide victimisation among refugees and immigrants.

Additionally, in the text, it is left unclear how a refugee’s history of ‘violence, trauma and torture’ buy kamagra online and ‘depression and psychosocial illness’ are linked to homicide victimisation. Such unsupported statements omit essential consideration that Canadian neighbourhoods are heterogeneous combinations of refugees, non-refugees and long-term residents and that violence occurs within a social context which includes racism, xenophobia and Islamophobia.8With the study’s low counts of homicide victimisations among refugees (31 among females and 89 among males over 20 years), 90% of all homicide victimisations in the same time period occurring among long-term residents (table 1 of paper), and no clear data pointing to specific factors to intervene upon, we argue that this potential in excess homicide victimisation does not warrant targeted homicide prevention strategies, as the authors suggest. Broader prevention strategies targeting the entire population (eg, a national ban on handguns and assault weapons,9 10 implementing Canada’s Anti-Racism Strategy8) may be more beneficial in reducing homicide victimisation.POTENTIAL IMPACTWe are concerned that the paper’s framing, approach and interpretation could negatively impact immigrant and refugee communities targeted by significant racism, anti-immigrant sentiment and Islamophobia at policy, practice, community and individual levels.6 11 Community engagement from the start, and comprehensive multi-level, multistage social determinants of immigrant health framework,11 could have prevented misinterpretations of the findings and this buy kamagra online potential for harm. It could have also shifted the approach from a deficit- to an asset-based one that recognises the leadership and impacts of women who founded groups such as Mothers for Peace12 and Mending a Crack in the Sky.13 These groups combat the stigmatisation of mothers and families that have lost children to violence.

Support mothers buy kamagra online and families experiencing ongoing trauma due to violence. And advocate for policy and programme change to reduce poverty, violence and homicide for all people in Canada, a more inclusive public health approach.We thank Wanigaratne and Mawani et al for taking the time to write this Commentary,1 which we have read with great interest. We agree that the framing and interpretation of findings about immigrant and refugee communities is of great importance and appreciate the opportunity to buy kamagra online provide clarification. We would first like to acknowledge the valuable expertise of the authors as well as their strong relationships and vital advocacy work within communities.The primary aim of our study was to provide descriptive epidemiology of homicide in Ontario.2 Very few population-level descriptive studies have been published characterising homicides, particularly regarding trends in homicide victimisation between and across population subgroups.

Our study team includes epidemiologists, professional and academics who work at the intersection of public health and violence, experience with implementing violence prevention programmes in marginalised populations around the world and expertise in working with large linked health administrative data.The linked health and administrative databases we used help fill the data gap with respect to understanding the victims of violence, including but not limited to refugee status.3 This aim is consistent with other descriptive database studies published about health and health system outcomes among immigrant and refugee populations in Ontario.4–11 The motivation for this study buy kamagra online was to provide descriptive data that can be used by communities and researchers to better understand the distribution of health outcomes across populations. Our study found differences in risk of homicide across several social and economic indicators, including lower socioeconomic ….

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